Thursday, May 21, 2020
A Consideration of the Way Shakespeare Presents and Develops the Theme of Blindness in King Lear Introduction ============ Throughout Ã¢â¬ËKing LearÃ¢â¬â¢, Shakespeare uses the playÃ¢â¬â¢s characters to make judgements on society using blindness as a metaphor that runs through the play. He does this in a number of ways portraying characters that can be fooled by othersÃ¢â¬â¢ flattery, or are easily manipulated or deceived, or simply have a lack of wisdom. As well as the horrific physical blinding of Gloucester, blindness is used as a metaphor for charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ lack of insight, moral blindness, and a lack of perception into otherÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and interests. Shakespeare illustrates the importance of seeing yourselfÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Unlike Albany, Cornwall has great insight into other characters and uses this to his advantage by manipulating and deceiving others. Cornwall however is morally blind, and unable to see the wrong of his actions. The outcome of CornwallÃ¢â¬â¢s blindness is his death, his own servant turns on him, just as he turned on his host and his king. Shakesp eare illustrates poetic justice, in the downfall of Cornwall. To counterbalance CornwallÃ¢â¬â¢s corruption, Albany grows in moral strength and gains awareness of justice and virtue. Like Albany, EdgarÃ¢â¬â¢s character develops throughout the play, he must suffer as Tom O Bedlam to truly understand EdmondÃ¢â¬â¢s trickery and more importantly himself. He reverts into a state of oblivion, and denies himself personality, money, food, and his position in society. From this state of nothingness, he builds his character, and so is no longer blind to himself, therefore can more easily start to understand the intentions of those around him. Edgar builds his character to the extent that by the end of the play, Shakespeare illustrates to the audience that he has the most insight and rewards him with the title of King. Lear is blind and irresponsible as father and ruler, he is preoccupied with appearances, he wishes to retain the trappings of majesty without the Ã¢â¬Ëcares and
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
ANALYSIS For my Foundations of Technology in Teaching and Learning course, I conducted two observations and implemented a lesson plan I created during the class. Both observations were to analyze how successful, technology was being integrated into daily instruction. The lesson plan I developed was designed to promote student collaboration using a Web 2.0 tool. On October 28, 2016 I observed Mrs. G. Green, at Mary McLeod Bethune Day Academy Public Charter School. I observed her 5th grade English Language Arts class. Teaching at a charter school, we are at an advantage as we have adopted the co-teacher model. This means in every classroom, there are two teachers, which makes it easier to rotate around the room to the different centers. The lesson I observed was on the text Esperanza Rising. For this lesson, students were asked to rotate three centers, the first center focused on completing the story map, the second focused on using prior knowledge to write narratives about the char acters and the last center focused on making comparisons about the author biography and actual biography. At the beginning of the lesson, Mrs. Green gave the students clear and concise instructions on the task for the English Language Arts period. While opening the lesson, Mrs. Green made sure she explained the task to students and reiterated the learning objectives to the students. At the beginning of the lesson while Mrs. Green was giving instruction, Ms. Brown the co-teacher was ensuringShow MoreRelatedEducational Technology in the 21st Century842 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLynette Baltierrez Educational Technology in the 21st Century The 21st century has developed into a time where technology is everywhere. 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string(91) " lack of regular feedback about performance detracts from his or her quality of work life\." Restructuring of Sales and Marketing HRM/531 2010 MEMORANDUM To: CEO, Kathy Kudler From: Date:2010 SUBJECT: Restructuring of Sales and Marketing The purpose of this memorandum is to inform the CEO of Kudler Fine Foods, Kathy Kudler on the restructuring of the sales and marketing team in alignment with the new initiatives the company is striving for. The restructure will consist of five new positions to support the restructure of the sales and marketing departments. I will explain the job descriptions and qualifications of the five new positions. We will write a custom essay sample on Restructuring of Sales and Marketing or any similar topic only for you Order Now Secondly, I will explain the training program to enhance the skills and qualification of the new and current employees. Thirdly, I will explain methods for evaluating employees and team performance, including a progressive discipline process. Fourth, challenges for team performance will be evaluated using several factors. Fifth, a comprehensive incentive and benefits packages will be addressed. Strategies for managing employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ career will be offered by promotions and educational opportunities. Lastly, a fair and appropriate compensation plan will be addressed. Job Description and Qualifications The first-level management position leading the sales and marketing team will be a Program Manager. Max James, PM, will research, develop, and implement a new marketing program for Kudler Fine Foods. The position requires him to define problems, develop a research plan, collect relative information, develop findings, scheduling and then take marketing and sales action. The new sales team will have a Marketing/Sales Manager. The manager must be able to identify problems, develop course of actions, analyze the course of actions, make a decision based on the analyzed courses of actions, and implement the decision. He or she will be responsible for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the personal selling functions. He or she is to manage the marketing resources of Kudler Fine Foods. He or she must maintain a reliable, competent, dependable, and customer oriented department through training, supervising, directing and delegation of responsibilities of four team members. The manager must provide recommendations and feedback to the Program Manager on a bi-weekly basis. A Marketing Analyst will also be needed to support the Marketing and Sales Manager. He or she will be responsible for planning and executing the marketing strategy for products, services or ideas to create and enhance sales for Kudler Fine Foods. He or she must demonstrate the ability to work effectively under pressure and within a collaborative team oriented environment using sound judgment in decision-making. A Marketing Analyst must possess a strong relationship management skill with external and internal customers; He or she must possess excellent communication skills both oral and written and have strong presentation skills with the ability to translate analytics to reports. A bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in marketing, mathematics, statistics, a related field or equivalent education required. Two or more years of analytics experience including applying statistical tools and techniques to analyze consumer and market research required. A Marketing Communication Coordinator is another position needed to support the Sales and Marketing Manager. He or she will manage phone book, radio, newspaper, and television advertisement for Kudler Fine Foods. This position requires bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree with 2 years experience in Marketing Communications environment. A Marketing Communication Coordinator must be able to execute multiple, time-sensitive projects at once for Kudler Fine Foods. He or she must have extensive knowledge of layout, design, print, photography, and website best practices. He or she must have familiarity with budgets and understanding of the importance of budget management. He or she must be proficient with all Microsoft Office applications, including Word, Excel and PowerPoint. Exceptional communications skills are required. The position also requires maintaining inventory of advertisement products and ensuring adequate supply of brochures and other materials are available upon request. Lastly, the department will need an Implementation Specialist. The specialist will support KudlerÃ¢â¬â¢s managers prioritize and launch new products by implementing new plans for upcoming/future years. The position requires excellent written and oral communication skills and presentation skills, including the ability to address a wide range of audiences. He or she must demonstrate success in product launches and history of initiative planning/organizing and implementation accomplishments. He or she must have strong problem solving skills. He or she must have a minimum of 2 years experience with new product implementations or experience in a product support role. The position requires a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in business or marketing. Training Program The five new hired employees all will have some level of marketing and sales experience, but will need to go through training to become familiar with Kudler Fine Foods products, prices, current operation procedure, and organization structure. The training will outline current competitors based on current and previous market analysis. The training program will enhance sales and marketing knowledge in order to facilitate quantifiable achievement. The training will assist the new hired team in their duties and responsibilities as itÃ¢â¬â¢s relate to Kudler Fine Foods. The objective of the training to prepare train, support, and guide the new team professionally in accordance with Kudler Fine Foods policies and procedures. Method for Evaluating Employee and Team Performance After much consideration, the method of evaluating employee and team performance will consist of performance appraisals and feedback. Timely feedback is a crucial part of a successful performance appraisal system. The feedback from the performance management program can be used in setting performance goals. The employees will receive an initial appraisal to set the goals and objectives. The employees will receive a monthly, quarterly, semi-annual, and annual feedback to measure performance based on his or her responsibilities. The team will receive a performance appraisal each quarter. Employees that do not meet his or her responsibilities will be put on a stringent re-training discipline program. The employee will be affixed with a pre-determined employee who will mentor and assist the employee in the areas he or she is failing. The employee will be re-evaluated after 30 days on his or her performance. Ã¢â¬Å"From an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, lack of regular feedback about performance detracts from his or her quality of work life. You read "Restructuring of Sales and Marketing" in category "Marketing" Most people want to improve their performance on the job, to receive constructive suggestions regarding areas they need to work on, to be commended for things that they do well. The cost of failure to provide feedback may result in the loss of key professional employees, the continued poor performance standards, and a loss of commitment by all employees. In sum, the myth that employees know how they are doing without adequate feedback from management can be an expensive fantasyÃ¢â¬ (Casio, 2005). Challenges of Team Performance Evaluation One type of appraisal system to be used by Kudler Fine Foods is the individual appraisal system. The system is designed to set goals, objectives, measure, and provide feedback. The individual appraisal system is to reward, and recognize the performance of an employee. The other type of appraisal is a team appraisal system. The team appraisal system is designed to allow the team to be evaluated as a group or whole. It becomes difficult to measure the team performance based on job description that may not apply to each member of the team. When designing a team appraisal system, the evaluation must be based on a measurable standard established for the entire team. The appraisal system must also be developed in a manner that offers a specific standard of performance for the entire team that can be applied to each member of the team individually. The individual evaluation to achieve a team goal makes a team appraisal system unique in itself. The motivation and expectation is clearly defined as such; employees need to feel valued in their position; an employee will consider that he or she is treated fairly if he or she perceives the ratio of his or her input to his or her outcomes to be equivalent to those around them. Thus, all else being equal, it would be acceptable for a more senior colleague to receive higher compensation, since the value of his experience (an input) is higher. The way people base their experience with satisfaction for their job is to make comparisons with themselves to the people they work with (Wikipedia, 2010). Expectations by employees from management are an important part of a team success. The team needs to know what, when, where, and how the task or goal should be accomplished or completed. By knowing the expectations will motivate the team and the individual employees to work hard at accomplishing the task. Some key expectations that are set in place are attendance, quality of work, teamwork, priorities, and individual work performance required. The goal is to balance team equity. If team equity is balanced, it motivates the employees to compete and work harder to do quality work. If equity is not balanced, employees will not be motivated to do their best work. When employees fail to do their best work, the company suffers tremendously from this effect. If pay levels of team members are unknown to one another, then individual equity would have no impact on team performance because individuals would only assume what others make. If a team member feels he or she is not rewarded properly or acknowledge for his or her input and stress or disappointment could impact the performance of the team or group. In order for Kudler to prevent loafing in the team setting, individuals will be assessed on all levels, as a team and an individual, which will help to ensure individual contribution. According to (Cascio, 2005), the two steps to take in order to prevent Ã¢â¬Å"free ridingÃ¢â¬ , are to conduct individual performance evaluations and to encourage individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior and skills that contribute to team performance. For a team to succeed, team members should either have different roles and or possess different skills to support the team. Different skills must be required to achieve goals of the team, (Clark, 2010). Individual employees shall be held accountable for contributions to the team effort. Individual employees shall help other members of the team believe their effort is important to the team success. Lastly, individual employees shall make members of the team fell each of his or her job is of equal valuable and important. Incentives and Benefits Packages Kudler Fine Foods Compensation Plan is established to attract qualified employees, to retain employees, and to motivate employees to direct their efforts towards achieving the goals assigned by the company. The five new employees will be on salary plan. A pay band will be established for each position title. The salary will be based on education and experience. To maximize the effectiveness of the compensation plan, Kudler Fine food will provide employees with benefit packages that include: Retirement Savings Plan 401(k), health insurance, vision care, dental care, life insurance, one week paid vacation, paid holidays. Ã¢â¬Å"While money is a powerful tool used to capture the minds and hearts of workers and maximize their productivity, donÃ¢â¬â¢t underestimate the impact of non-financial rewardsÃ¢â¬ (Casio, 2005). Strategies for Managing EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ Career Development At Kudler Fine Foods employees are their greatest asset. The structure of the positions allows for career growth of all employees of the sales and marketing department. Managers must annually conduct an individual career development plan for its employees. The plan will identify tools necessary to help an employee develop knowledge and skills needed for his or her current position as well as future job opportunities. Managers will support requests for flexible work schedules for its employees. Each employee will receive a development plan during its initial job orientation/counseling and periodic reviews throughout the year. Feedback will be given semi-annual and one year performance appraisal. A Fair and Appropriate Compensation Plan Employees within the sales and marketing department are diverse in gender, culture, sex, ethnicity, age and much more. Diversity within the workplace affects directly the performance and results of the organization, thus, it is important to acknowledge peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s differences and recognize these differences as valuable assets to the company; it enhances good management practices by preventing discrimination and promoting acceptance inclusiveness. Thanks. References Cascio, W. , (2005). Managing Human Resources: Productivity, Quality of Work Life, Profits, (7th ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill, Ch 9 Cascio, W. , (2005). Managing Human Resources: Productivity, Quality of Work Life, Profits, (7th ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill, Ch 11 Clark, R. (2010). Research-Tested Team Motivation Strategies. Retrieved March 28, 2010, from http://www. cogtech. usc. edu/publications/clark_team_motivation. pdf Wikipedia, (2010). Motivation and Expectation. Retrieved March 27, 2010, from http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index. php? title=Special%3ASearch=motivation+and+expectat ion=Search How to cite Restructuring of Sales and Marketing, Essays
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Marigold HR Plan Essay Ans. 1 HR Planning and Recruitment Planning for Marigold HR planning (Management Study Guide 2012) HR planning which is also referred to as manpower planning includes putting the right number and right kind of people at the right place and time, doing the right things as suitable to achieve organizational goals. It must be done in systems approach and can be carried out by a set of procedures which are as follows: 1 . Analyzing the current manpower: 2. Making future manpower forecasts: 3. Developing employment programs 4. Design training programs We will use the above mentioned steps to arrive at a plan for Marigold. Analyzing the current manpower: Marigold has 75 senior management and 425 middle and Junior executives resulting in a sales team of 500 people. We would require 30 additional resources to achieve the target of 5% increase on revenue in both soap and detergent sector respectively. For this the following things are analyzed- Type of organization: Departments to be catered: Number and quantity of such departments: Employees in these work units Marigold is a FMCG company and the sales and distribution departments are the most important department on Marigold. Sales team is one of the biggest epartments as this is the team that generates revenue and the engine that drives Marigold as the top player in FMCG market. Since Marigold has a large sales force and arriving at a Job profile and Job specifications are very easy as the required resources that need to be hired fall in the same Job description. 2. Making future manpower forecasts: We already know we need 30 new resources 6 higher management and 24 middle or junior level executives. The rationale behind this is to achieve a growth of 5% in soap and detergent sectors. The forecast can be made through the following techniques ) Expert Forecasts: This includes informal decisions, formal expert surveys and Delphi technique. b) Trend Analysis: Manpower needs can be projected through extrapolation (projecting past trends), indexation (using base year as basis), and statistical analysis (central tendency measure). c) Work Load Analysis: It is dependent upon the nature of work load in a department, in a branch or in a division. d) Work Force Analysis: Whenever production and time period has to be analyzed, due allowances have to be made for getting net manpower requirements. ) Other etnoas: several Matnematlcal models, witn tne ala 0T computers are usea to forecast manpower needs, like budget and planning analysis, regression and new venture analysis. We used work load analysis, trend analysis and expert forecast to arrive at the required need of 30 resources. 3. Developing employment programs Once the current inventory is compared with future forecasts, the employment programs can be framed and developed accordingly, which will include recruitment, selection procedures and placement plans. 4. Design training programs These will be based upon extent of diversification, expansion plans, development rograms, etc. We will write a custom essay sample on Marigold HR Plan specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Marigold HR Plan specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Marigold HR Plan specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Training programs will depend upon the extent of improvement in technology and advancement to take place. It will also be done to improve upon the skills, capabilities, knowledge of the workers. Recruitment planning: Recruitment Planning is a planning for effective sourcing, screening, evaluating, selecting and monitoring for hiring the appropriate candidates for appropriate Jobs. According to Edwin B. Flippo, Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for Jobs in the organization. The Process includes five stages:- Planning. ?Strategy Development. Searching Screening Evaluation and control. Requirement plan for sales executive: Plan of execution for recruitment: First week create a database for recruiting the candidates by internal source and external source. Second week filter the candidate by checking their resume and call the selected candidates for first round for interview, also the candidates role in the organization is made clear as what is expected out of them. In the third week the selected candidates from second week are called and required numbers of candidates are selected as per requirement. In the final week selected candidates are called for induction program where their goals are given. The candidates who are 95 % meeting the requirements we can keep them in buffer candidates list as for Manpower Plan. Requirement plan for sales Manager: The Requirement plan for manager would be different from the sales executive, as tnls post requlres tne experlence as well as tne Knowledge 0T company Tor adaptability of organizational culture. The Plan would be: 1. Internal Job Posting 2. Transfer 3. Internal Referrals 4. Performance screening 5. Interview and selection 6. Poaching Poaching tne well This would help in getting not only the manager level position but also the team that goes along with the manager. In order to achieve the sales target of 5 % more from the market shares it is not going be an easy Job. The recruitment process will play a major in deciding whether those fgures will be achievable. Ans. 2 Appropriate sources of recruiting candidates: There are two types of recruitment: Internal Recruitment. External recruitment. Sources of Recruiting Source: naukrihub. om (2012) Internal Recrultment: Internal recruitment is a recruitment which takes place within the concern or organization. Internal sources of recruitment are readily available to an organization. Internal Sources of Recruiting: Transfers: The employees are transferred from one department to another according to their efficiency and experience. Promotions: The employees are promoted from one department to another with more benefits and greater respons ibility based on their efficiency and experience. Upgrading and Demotion: Upgrading and demoting present employees to higher or lower levels bases on their performance. Deceased/Disabled employees: The Dependents and relatives of deceased employees and disabled employees are lso done by many companies for the betterment of the relative families. Advantages of internal recruitment: Gives existing employees greater opportunity to advance their careers in the business. May help to retain staff that might otherwise leave. Requires a short induction training period. Usually quicker and less expensive than recruiting from outside. Disadvantages of internal recruitment: Limits the number of potential applicants for a Job. External candidates might be better suited / qualified for the Job. Another vacancy will be created that has to be filled. Existing staff may feel they have the automatic right to be promoted, whether or not they are competent. External Recruitment: External sources of recruitment have to be solicited from outside the organization. External sources are external to a concern. But it involves lot of time and money. External Sources of Recruiting: Press advertisement: Advertisements of the vacancy in newspapers and Journals are a widely used source of recruitment. The main advantage of this method is that it has a wide reach. Educational institutes: Various management institutes are a good source of recruiting well qualified xecutives, and staffs etc. They provide facilities for campus interviews and placements. This source is known as Campus Recruitment. Placement agencies: Several private consultancy firms perform recruitment functions on behalf of client companies by charging a fee. These agencies are particularly suitable for recruitment of executives and specialists. It is also known as RPO (Recruitment Process Outsourcing). Employment exchange: ernment esta Dllsnes puDllc employment excnanges tnrougnout tne country. These exchanges provide Job information to Job seekers and help employers in identifying suitable candidates. Labor contractors: Manual workers can be recruited through contractors who maintain close contacts with the source of such workers. This source is used to recruit labor for construction jobs. Unsolicited applicants: Many Job seekers visit the office of well-known companies on their own. Such callers are considered nuisance to the daily work routine of the enterprise. But can help in creating the talent pool or the database of the probable candidates for the organization. Employee referrals/recommendations: Many organizations have structured system where the current employees of the rganization can refer their friends and relatives for some position in their Recruitment at factory gate: Unskilled workers may be recruited at the factory gate these may be employed whenever a permanent worker is absent. More efficient among these may be recruited to fill permanent vacancies. Advantages of external recruitment: Outside people bring in new ideas. Larger pool of workers from which to find the best candidate. People have a wider range of experience. Disadvantages of external recruitment: Longer process. More expensive process due to. Advertisements and interviews required. Selection process may not be effective enough to reveal the best candidate. Ans. 3 Initial Screening Matrix Screening Matrix is a tool which supplies a summary of candidates and qualifications that helps in determining who will proceed through the final assessment or interview process. The Screening Matrix is used to: 1 . Establish objective, Job-related criteria which will be consistently applied to all Applicants and which can be quantifiably measured. 2. Stipulate each qualification on the matrix. 3 Determine IT quallTlcatlons need to oe welgntea Initial Screening: Initial screening is a process to check the candidate(s) by cross references and past data in order to make sure that the person is of sound mind and attitude and does not have a criminal record. Depending on the past, we have to check their academic qualifications also. It should normally be done under a week. Each applicant should be acknowledged immediately. Within one week applicants should receive notification of the receipt of their application or inquiry. Using the developed screening matrix evaluate the applicants applying the established criteria and moving only the qualified applicants to the next level. Rank the candidates and select top applicants for interviews. Critically review the selected group to ensure that qualified pools of candidates will be interviewed. Applicants that are unsuccessful should be notified at this time. And lastly, forward the files of the selected top candidates to be interviewed along with the Interview Questions to be asked to Human Resource Department for compliance review and approval. The screening can be divided into various ratings ranging from A to E with A being the best and E the poorest. Initial Screening Matrix for Junior Middle Level Sales Management: Candidate ame: Candidate no. E-mail id: Interview date: Fields Ratings Remarks c Communication Skill Convincing Skill Knowledge Related Experience Attitude Overall personality Target orientation QuallTlcatlon Parameters: A = Excellent, B = Good, C = Average, D = Satisfactory, E Signature of candidate Signature of Interviewer = Poor Initial Screening Matrix for Senior Level sales Management: Can didate name: Leadership skills Stress handling capacity Managerlal skills Communication skills Convincing skills Selling skills Related experience References: Management Study Guide (2012), Manpower Planning'[online] ttp://www. anagementstudyguide. com/manpower-planning. htm[accessed 18/0112013] Edwin B. Flippo, Naukrihub. com (2012) Recruitment definition, Sources of Recruitment [online] http://www. recruitment. naukrihub. com/meaning-of- recruitment. html [accessed 18/0112013] Tutor2u (2012) Recruitment internal and external [online] http://www. tutor2u. net/business/people/ recruitment_internal_external. asp [accessed 18/0112013] Bibliography: Adhikari, D. R. (1999) Human Resource Management in Nepal: Policies and Practices (1st Edition), Austria: Leopold-Franzens University Agrawal, G. R. (2004) Dynamics of
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Flame Test Essays Flame Test Paper Flame Test Paper Title: Flame Test Aim: To determine the cation in each of the unknown substance X, Y and Z by observing the flame colour of different metal compounds. Introduction: A distinctive feature of many s-block metals is their ability to produce flame colours. At temperature of a Bunsen flame, a compound will decompose to give gaseous atoms of its constituent elements. When an electron in the gaseous atom absorbs energy from the flame, it will move from an orbital with lower energy to an orbital with higher energy. When such an electron returns from an orbital of higher energy to an orbital of lower energy, a photon with energy equal to the difference in energy of the two orbitals will be emitted. An emission line results. Each element has a unique emission spectrum. A metal can be identified if it has a strong emission line in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thus when a compound such as NaCl is vaporized in a flame, ion pairs are converted to gaseous atoms. Na(g) atoms are excited to high energies, and 589nm (yellow) light is emitted as the excited atoms revert to their ground state electronic configurations. : Therefore, the cation in the unknown substances can be identify. Chemicals: Concentrated Hydrochloric acid (about 10 cm3) The following solids (0. 1 g) for flame tests: Barium chloride Calcium chloride Copper (II) chloride Magnesium chloride Potassium chloride Sodium chloride Unknown solids containing a single cation and labelled X, Y and Z Apparatus: Bunsen burner Insulation mat Platinum wire (or Nichrome wire), Watch glass Safety precaution: As concentrated hydrochloric acid is corrosive, skin contact should be avoided. It is preferable to use polythene gloves and wear goggles while handling it. Copper (II) chloride and barium chloride are highly toxic by ingestion. Avoid contact with eyes and skin. When Busen burner is not being used, close the air hole so that you can see the yellow flame. Keep your clothing away from the flame. Procedure: 1. The platinum wire was dipped into concentrated hydrochloric acid and heated in a non-luminous flame until the flame is no longer coloured. 2. A spatula of sample (e. g. barium chloride) was put onto a clean watch glass. 3. The platinum wire is dipped into concentrated hydrochloric acid and then the crushed sample of salt to be tested. . The end of the platinum wire is heated strongly in a non-luminous flame again. 5. The colour of the flame at the wire is observed and recorded. 6. The platinum wire is cleaned thoroughly after testing each solid. The test is repeated with chloride of Ca2+, Cu2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+ and unknown solid X, Y and Z in turn. Results: Compound| Colour of the flame| Cation Presents| Barium chloride| Apple green| | C alcium chloride| Brick red| | Copper(II) chloride| Bluish green| | Magnesium chloride| White| | Potassium chloride| Lilac| | Sodium chloride| Golden yellow| | X| Lilac| K+| Y| Bluish green| Cu2+| Z| Golden yellow| Na+| Discussion: 1. Why do certain metal ions give flame colours in this way? The elements have their outer electrons loosely bound so that they can be easily excited to higher energy levels on heating. As these electrons return to their ground states, radiations are emitted. It happens that for many Group I and II metals, these emitted radiations fall into the visible range of the spectrum, so that they can be seen by eyes, i. e. , visible. 2. What is the function of concentrated hydrochloric acid? It is used to clean the platinum wire. The concentrated hydrochloric acid converts ant contaminated salts to their corresponding chlorides, which are usually more volatile to be vaporized off. It gives better observations as the boiling point of metal chloride is lower and less heat is needed to vaporize it. Besides, the sample of powdered compound whose flame colour is to determined is easier to stuck on the platinum wire. 3. Substance A gives a golden yellow flame in flame test. When an acidified solution of A is treated with silver nitrate solution, a yellow precipitate is formed. The precipitate is insoluble in excess ammonia solution. Name A. Substance A is sodium iodide. Limitation The range of detected elements is small, and the test relies on the subjective experience of the experimenter rather than any objective measurements. The test has difficulty detecting small concentrations of some elements, while too strong a result may be produced for certain others, which tends to drown out weaker signals. Moreover, the test cannot differentiate between all elements. Several metals produce the same flame color while some compounds do not change the color of the flame at all. Source of error The source of error of the experiment include the subjective judgment of the colour by the human eye. Besides, the traces of Impurities from the last substance tested and the position of the wire put in the flame also affect the accuracy of the experiment. Improvement The wire should be moved first through the cooler part of the non-luminous Bunsen flame by approaching from underneath, so that even very volatile substances could colour the flame long enough to be observable. The platinum wire should be cleaned thoroughly before testing for a new compound as impurities or contaminants affect the test results. Conclusion: The cation in the unknown substance X, Y and Z is K+, Cu2+ and Na+ respectively.
Monday, March 2, 2020
The Cheapest and the Most Expensive Christmas Gifts Made By Students Though the date of Christmas is not moveable and no one keeps it in secret, people still donÃ¢â¬â¢t buy gifts preemptively, at least, not all of them. We have gathered ideas for Christmas gifts on different budgets in the hope that these ideas will inspire you. The Cheapest 10 Scores for Wittiness photo:reddit.com If you with your friends established Secret Santa budget that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t fit your budget, hereÃ¢â¬â¢s a way how to go through this. However, you shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have much expectations about a Christmas gift youÃ¢â¬â¢ll get next year. 2 in 1 photo:reddit.com Looks like this guy is a future politician. He promises not to make worse and this works. This is a very cheap present but you can jeopardize your heritage. A Box Is a Present Itself, DidnÃ¢â¬â¢t You Know? photo:reddit.com Boxes, wrapping paper and ribbons cost waaaay too much. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a good present because the person can use those boxes and paper for his or her gifts. Besides, you can make it for free if you have been collecting all the boxes and wrapping papers for years. The Alternative for a Box of Chocolate photo:reddit.com An adorable gift for a teacher even though the language should have been more appropriate. To make such a gift, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need $20 for materials and a couple of sleepless nights. Experiments With Clothes What Animal Do You Associate You With? photo:reddit.com T-shirts that you can wear alternative ways are awesome. This is a nice present for your friend that by the was is not expensive. The World Should Know Your Friend Better photo:reddit.com Making fun of your friends is one of the ways to say how much you love them. I think the author of this present thought this way. Now, he should be prepared for the revenge that can come any time. You Are Limited Only By Your ImaginationAnd Drawing Skills photo:reddit.com Even Homer is shocked how nice this guy managed to paint shoes. However, this is not about the Simpsons. This about making not expensive gifts appear more valuable. How Far Can They Go? photo:reddit.com The only T-shirt with the picture of the man wearing it that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t look pathetic. Exes Also Want Presents photo:reddit.com Before unrevealing, that was supposed to be a sweater for a boyfriend. And now itÃ¢â¬â¢s a present for an ex. The only condition to make this present is to hate someone enough to waste your time and effort. How Many Pokemons Have You Caught? photo:reddit.com If you worry that a fish wonÃ¢â¬â¢t survive at your friendÃ¢â¬â¢s place, you can place pokemons in a fish bowl instead. Steam Emergency photo:reddit.com This is the case when the package is better and more creative than the present itself. The Most Expensive What Is Your Favorite Movie? photo:reddit.com DonÃ¢â¬â¢t look for Ã¢â¬Å"WhereÃ¢â¬â¢s ham? movie. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s fake. The author of this present made up fake covers for X-rated movies so that parents of his buddy wonÃ¢â¬â¢t find out. Making such present is time-consuming and can be expensive for student budget. This Calendar Can Make Your Day photo:reddit.com For such calendar, you might need some stuff. I doubt if each student has a banana costume. Also, this guy had to use PS to fulfill his ideas. The Only Shiba Inu That Can Make You Rich photo:reddit.com Dogecoins can cost a fortune in a couple of years. Think one more time before giving them as a present. Perhaps the Most Expensive Gift Here photo:reddit.com Who could get such an expensive gift? Of course, itÃ¢â¬â¢s mom. Such gift would cost you a fortune or $5000 but momÃ¢â¬â¢s hug is priceless, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t it? No, the Previous One WasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the Most Expensive photo:reddit.com This is the present of the year, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t it? The way to get it is simple, the only thing you need to do is to create a time machine, go back to 2011 and buy it. I hope that some ideas will help you to create your own presents. If you need even more inspiration, check out more Christmas gifts ideas for college students. When selecting or making gifts, remember that more important is your emotions and words that you say, not the gift itdself. Good luck and have a nice holiday!
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Police in New Orleans - Essay Example In 2002 and 2003, the state reported highest number of homicide cases. The law enforcement agencies are criticized for their failure to protect and safeguard the lives and properties of the citizens. Poverty is considered to be the major reason behind the involvement of the police into corrupt practices, the official poverty rate of the state is 28%, more than 25% of the residents of New Orleans, which include large number of police officials, earn less than $20,000. The Katrina episode brought the inefficiency and incompetence of the police officials evident, in the Times Picayune edition it was reported that, "Neighbors in the area near Hickory and Short Streets Uptown said a body has been floating nearby in five feet of water since the unidentified man was shot five times on Monday. Neighbors said the shooting was reported, but police and other officials apparently have been unable to respond" (Nicole Gelinas, 2005). The New Orleans police was previously considered to competent force, in mid 1990s the former commissioner Richard Pennington struggled hard and was successful in reducing the crime rate. However, since Pennington's departure, the crime rates have risen significantly. The New Orleans police department is considered as corrupt, brutal and an incompetent institution and the Katrina episode turned the situation worst. The police have been involved in differe... The investigations concluded that more than 12 officers were involved in the alleged practices of their involvement in looting. More than 250 police officers i.e. 15 percent of the police force faced disciplinary motions against them for their unreported absence during and post Katrina disaster (Associated Press). The police department was reportedly accused of violence and brutality, and the senior police officials personally involved themselves for the clarity and investigation of the allegations. In one of the cases, an officer's wife lodged complain for being physical tortured by three police officers, who penetrated into her house without any warrant. The police authority launched the investigation instantly, and three officers were suspended with immediate notification. According to Police Supt. Warren Riley, 'We take our integrity very, very seriously'(Hampton, 2005). There were certain other accusations, in many of the crimes the police officials were caught red-handed. In one of the cases the police officials interrogated 12 officials for looting a market. The accused were traced through the installed security camera. The senior police officials were frank enough to confirm the allegations, and promised 'swift and decisive' actions against the accused, the senior officials reported th at, 'There is zero tolerance for misconduct or unprofessional attitude by any member of this department'. (Hampton, 2005) The police authorities did take considerable remedial measures to combat the allegations of corruptions. The police department revised their infrastructure, and the federal government provided the required resources for the up gradation of the services. The police department adopted